Il peccato di Davide con Bath-Sceba
2 Samuele 11,12. “Come può dire la Bibbia che il Profeta Davide ha commesso adulterio con la moglie di Uriah, Bath-Sceba, e che poi è stato messo a tacere?
Curiosamente, questa storia si trova nel Qur’an (38:21-24, 30) e i migliori interpreti musulmani ci dicono che Davide che prende illecitamente la moglie di Uriah è la corretta interpretazione dei versi coranici. Per esempio, Ibn Abbas scrivendo sulla Sura 38:23-24 e 26:
(Guarda! Questo mio fratello aveva novantanove percore) che significa 99 mogli (mentre io ne avevo soltanto una) per esempio, una moglie (e disse: “Affidala a me”, e mi ha conquistato nel parlare). Questa è una similitudine che avevano coniato per Davide così da fargli capire quello che aveva fatto ad Uriah (Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs; fonte)
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Tafsir Jalalayn concurs that this was about David wrongly marrying another’s wife:
…These two were angels who had come in the form of two disputants, between whom there occurred the situation mentioned —only hypothetically — in order to alert David, peace be upon him, to what he had done: he had ninety nine women but desired the woman of a man who had only her and no other. He [David] had married her and consummated the marriage. ( source)
And from Tabari:
He saw a woman bathing herself on her roof, one of the most beautiful women in form. She happened to turn around, and she saw him. She let down her hair, covering herself with it. That only increased his desire for her. He asked about her and was told that she had a husband who was absent at such-and-such a garrison. He sent to the garrison commander an order to send Uriah [Sam- Arabic, Ahriya/Awriya] against such-and-such an enemy. He therefore sent him, and [the enemy] was conquered by him. The commander wrote back to David about the victory, and David wrote to him again, saying, “Send him against such-and-such an enemy, who is even stronger than they.” So he sent him, and they again were conquered by him, and he wrote to David about the second victory. David wrote to him, “Send him to such-and-such an enemy.” So he sent him, and on the third time, Uriah was slain.
David married Uriah’s wife. When she came to him, she had been with him only a short time when God sent two angels, in human form, who requested admission to his presence. But they found that this was his day of worship, and the guards prevented them from entering. So the two scaled the wall of his private apartment to reach him. He was not aware of [their arrival] while he was praying, but suddenly the two were sitting in front of him. He was startled, but they said, “Do not be afraid. We are two litigants, one of whom has wronged the other, therefore judge aright between us; be not unjust”– meaning, do not act wrongfully- “and show us the fair way, to just judgment.” David said, “Tell me your story.” One of them said: “Lo! This brother of mine has ninety-nine ewes while I have one ewe. He wants to take my ewe to round out his to one hundred.”
David then said to the other one, “What do you have to say?” The other replied, “I have ninety-nine ewes, and this brother of mine has one ewe, and I want to take it from him to complete my ewes to one hundred.” David said, “Even though he is unwilling?” He replied, “Even though he is unwilling!” David said, “Then we cannot let you do that!” He replied, “But you are unable to [prevent] that.” David said, “If you try that, then we will hit you on this and that” which Asbat interprets as “the tip of the nose and the forehead.” Then he said, “O David! You deserve more to be hit on this and this, since you have ninety-nine wives while Uriah had only one wife. But you did not stop exposing him to slaughter until he was slain, and you married his wife.” (The History of Al-Tabari, Volume III, The Children of Israel, [State University of NY Press, Alban 1991], pp. 144-146)
And here is what the Qur’anic passage says
He has nine and ninety ewes, and I have (but) one: Yet he says, ‘commit her to my care,’ and is (moreover) harsh to me in speech.” (David) said: “He has undoubtedly wronged thee in demanding thy (single) ewe to be added to his (flock of) ewes: truly many are the partners (in business) who wrong each other: Not so do those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, and how few are they?”… and David gathered that We had tried him: he asked forgiveness of his Lord, fell down, bowing (in prostration), and turned (to Allah in repentance) …
Sebbene questo fatto spiacevole è considerato un peccato orribile, Dio ha usato il ravvedimento di Davide per darci alcuni dei più bei passaggi biblici, espressione del vero ravvedimento e pentimento. Salmo 51:1-12:
Salmo di Davide, quando il profeta Natan venne da lui, dopo che Davide era stato da Bat-Sceba. Abbi pietà di me, o Dio, per la tua bontà; nella tua grande misericordia cancella i miei misfatti. Lavami da tutte le mie iniquità e purificami dal mio peccato; poiché riconosco le mie colpe, il mio peccato è sempre davanti a me. Ho peccato contro te, contro te solo, ho fatto ciò ch’è male agli occhi tuoi. Perciò sei giusto quando parli, e irreprensibile quando giudichi. Ecco, io sono stato generato nell’iniquità, mia madre mi ha concepito nel peccato. […] O Dio, crea in me un cuore puro e rinnova dentro di me uno spirito ben saldo. Non respingermi dalla tua presenza e non togliermi il tuo santo Spirito. Rendimi la gioia della tua salvezza e uno spirito volenteroso mi sostenga. Insegnerò le tue vie ai colpevoli, e i peccatori si convertiranno a te.
Tra i profeti, solo Gesù è contato tra gli esempi senza peccato che dovremmo dichiarare (leggi di più qui). Gli altri profeti non sono esempi di vita perfetta, ma piuttosto possiamo imparare dalle loro cadute il vero ravvedimento. Dovremmo imitare il loro umile pentimento.